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Restrict user to login from single Host

Restricting user to login from single host may be sometimes required from security point and other business requirements. We can achieve it through SERVER LEVEL LOGON TRIGGER.

ALTER TRIGGER TR_CHECK_LOGIN_TEST_HOST
ON ALL SERVER
FOR LOGON
AS
BEGIN

DECLARE @HOSTNAME VARCHAR(48)
DECLARE @PROGNAME VARCHAR(100)

SELECT @HOSTNAME = HOST_NAME FROM SYS.DM_EXEC_SESSIONS
WHERE SESSION_ID = @@SPID

IF ORIGINAL_LOGIN() = ‘TEST’ AND @HOSTNAME =’HostName’
ROLLBACK;

END

Once you create above trigger, Login “TEST” will be able to connect from specified host only. Connection from any other host will be failed and face below error: –

You can also find related errors in SQL Server Error log as well.

Error: 17892, Severity: 20, State: 1.

Logon failed for login ‘TEST’ due to trigger execution. [CLIENT: <local machine>]

Error: 3609, Severity: 16, State: 2.

The transaction ended in the trigger. The batch has been aborted.

 

Reference: Rohit Garg (http://mssqlfun.com/)

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Write-Host || Cannot invoke this function because the current host does not implement it

Issue: While running powershell in SQL job step, I am getting below error: –

A job step received an error at line 13 in a PowerShell script. The corresponding line is ‘Write-Host “ServerName: ” $comp’. Correct the script and reschedule the job. The error information returned by PowerShell is: ‘Cannot invoke this function because the current host does not implement it.  ‘.  Process Exit Code -1.  The step failed.

 

Solution: SQL Server Agent allows users to directly run PowerShell scripts in SQL Server Agent. Internally this is implemented by reusing the SQLPS.EXE shell. When SQL Server Agent starts SQLPS.EXE, it does not do this through the console (there is no console attached).

 

When you run Write-Host, PowerShell asked to write on host console but due to no availability of HOST console, we got error.

I removed Write-Host to resolve issue.

 

Reference: Rohit Garg (http://mssqlfun.com/)

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Error While running PowerShell code from SQL Agent job – “Path Does Not Exist”

Issue: When I am running code from PowerShell console its running fine but when I execute it through SQL agent job step, I am getting below error: –

The job script encountered the following errors. These errors did not stop the script:  A job step received an error at line 14 in a PowerShell script. The corresponding line is ‘$files = Get-ChildItem “\\$comp\D$\*.xls”‘. Correct the script and reschedule the job. The error information returned by PowerShell is: ‘An object at the specified path \\ServerName\D$ does not exist.  ‘  A job step received an error at line 43 in a PowerShell script. The corresponding line is ‘    $str = Get-Content $i.FullName | Where-Object { ($_ -match ‘Alive’) }’. Correct the script and reschedule the job. The error information returned by PowerShell is: ‘Cannot bind argument to parameter ‘Path’ because it is null.  ‘.  Process Exit Code -1.  The step failed.

Solution: SQL Server Agent allows users to directly run PowerShell scripts in SQL Server Agent. Internally this is implemented by reusing the SQLPS.EXE shell. When SQL Server Agent starts SQLPS.EXE, It cannot access file system.

To access file system, you need to change the scope from SQL to filesystem.

You can do it by adding “cd C:” before executing filesystem commands.

 

Reference: Rohit Garg (http://mssqlfun.com/)

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What’s new in SQL Server 2016 installation?

1) As MS is kept increasing number of option while installation. To reduce no. of click, if setup pass Rules it will automatically moves to Next window.

2) On Server Configuration page, MS specifically ask to GRANT PERFORM VOLUME MAINTENANCE TASK permission to service account. SQL Services needs this access to perform instant file initialization for data files instead of zero file initialization.  (For information read – https://msdn.microsoft.com/library/ms175935)

3) 2 New Tabs in Database Engine Configuration page. One is TempDB configuration & other is User Instance feature.

4) Separate Acceptance page for Microsoft R.

Step  by Step Installation :-

1. Setup Page, Choose First option

2. Setup checks for Global Rules and moves to next page, if all rules passed

3. Option to choose, if you want setup to download latest update and install

4. Initial Setup files installed

5. Check for installation rules and moves to next page, if all rules passed

6. Accept terms and condition, Click to Next

7. Select features you want to install

8. Check feature rule and moves to next page, if all rules passed

9. Select Instance name

10. Specify service accounts, you can also select collation from collation tab.

Here, MS specifically ask to GRANT PERFORM VOLUME MAINTENANCE TASK permission to service account. (For information read – https://msdn.microsoft.com/library/ms175935)

https://msdn.microsoft.com/library/ms175935

11. Select Authentication type

12. Select Data Directories

13. New Tab introduced to provide TempDB configuration at time of installation only

14. New Tab introduced for “User Instance” feature. Although, MS marked this feature to be removed. After this special tab, It seems MS changed his mind.

Refer – https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms143684

15. Option to enable FileStream

16. Option for SSRS installation and configuration

17. New Page added for Microsoft R acceptance

18. Installation on the way

19. Installation Completed Successfully

Reference: Rohit Garg (http://mssqlfun.com/)

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Sequence – Long awaited feature

As per BOL (https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ff878058(v=sql.110).aspx) : A sequence is a user-defined schema-bound object that generates a sequence of numeric values according to the specification with which the sequence was created. The sequence of numeric values is generated in an ascending or descending order at a defined interval and may cycle (repeat) as requested. Sequences, unlike identity columns, are not associated with tables. An application refers to a sequence object to receive its next value. The relationship between sequences and tables is controlled by the application. User applications can reference a sequence object and coordinate the values keys across multiple rows and tables.

This feature is really a good to have and this feature is same as Oracle’s sequence objects.  A sequence object generates sequence of unique numeric values as per specifications mentioned.

A sequence can be defined as any integer data type. If the data type is not specified, a sequence defaults to bigint. A sequence value is not effected by SQL server restart. Many people think sequence is similar to identity. But big difference is sequence object is independent of a table while identity columns are attached to a table.

Create Sequence

CREATE SEQUENCE TEMPSEQ AS INT

START WITH 1 — START WITH VALUE 1

INCREMENT BY 1– INCREMENT WITH VALUE 1

MINVALUE 0 — MINIMUM VALUE TO START IS 0

MAXVALUE 5 — MAXIMUM IT CAN GO TO 5

NO CYCLE — DO NOT GO ABOVE 5

CACHE 2 — INCREMENT 2 VALUES IN MEMORY RATHER THAN INCREMENTING FROM IO

Generate value from Sequence

SELECT NEXT VALUE FOR TEMPSEQ AS seq_no;

Error when Sequence reach to MAX value

Msg 11728, Level 16, State 1, Line 18

The sequence object ‘TEMPSEQ’ has reached its minimum or maximum value. Restart the sequence object to allow new values to be generated.

Alter Sequence to RESTART it from 1 or desired value

ALTER SEQUENCE TEMPSEQ RESTART WITH 1

 

Create Sequence with CYCLE mode, where value will be reset to MIN value when it reaches to MAX value

CREATE SEQUENCE TEMPSEQ_CYCLE AS INT

START WITH 1 — START WITH VALUE 1

INCREMENT BY 1– INCREMENT WITH VALUE 1

MINVALUE 0 — MINIMUM VALUE TO START IS 0

MAXVALUE 5 — MAXIMUM IT CAN GO TO 5

CYCLE — RESET to 0 once reached to MAX VALUE 5

CACHE 2 — INCREMENT 2 VALUES IN MEMORY RATHER THAN INCREMENTING FROM IO

Output of Sequence with CYCLE

SELECT NEXT VALUE FOR TEMPSEQ_CYCLE AS ID, NAME FROM SYS.OBJECTS

Sequence

Alter existing Sequence to set it to CYCLE mode

ALTER SEQUENCE TEMPSEQ CYCLE — RESET to 0 once reached to MAX VALUE 5

Use Sequence in Table as Default constraint.

Scenario: We need to generate token for each customer coming to meet him with HR & finance personal.

  1. Create Sequence

CREATE SEQUENCE TOKENNO AS INT

START WITH 1 — START WITH VALUE 1

INCREMENT BY 1– INCREMENT WITH VALUE 1

MINVALUE 0 — MINIMUM VALUE TO START IS 0

MAXVALUE 5000 — MAXIMUM IT CAN GO TO 5000

NO CYCLE — RESET to 0 once reached to MAX VALUE 5000

CACHE 200 — INCREMENT 200 VALUES IN MEMORY RATHER THAN INCREMENTING FROM IO

  1. Create Table with Sequence

CREATE TABLE HR_EXECUTIVE_MEETING

(TOKENNO INT DEFAULT (NEXT VALUE FOR TOKENNO), DESKNO INT)

 

CREATE TABLE FINANCE_EXECUTIVE_MEETING

(TOKENNO INT DEFAULT (NEXT VALUE FOR TOKENNO), DESKNO INT)

  1. Insert into table having Sequence

INSERT INTO HR_EXECUTIVE_MEETING(TOKENNO,DESKNO) VALUES(DEFAULT,22)

INSERT INTO FINANCE_EXECUTIVE_MEETING(TOKENNO,DESKNO) VALUES(DEFAULT,7)

  1. Check the table values

SELECT * FROM HR_EXECUTIVE_MEETING

SELECT * FROM FINANCE_EXECUTIVE_MEETING

Sequence

Reference: Rohit Garg (http://mssqlfun.com/)

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What is “SET STATISTICS TIME”?

When you turn on this option, it will display the number of milliseconds required to parse, compile, and execute each statement. By default, this option is disabled.

SET STATISTICS TIME ON;
GO
SELECT * FROM [HUMANRESOURCES].[EMPLOYEE]

Output: -
SQL Server parse and compile time:
 CPU time = 0 ms, elapsed time = 1 ms.

(290 row(s) affected)

SQL Server Execution Times:
 CPU time = 0 ms, elapsed time = 60 ms.

Reference : Rohit Garg (http://mssqlfun.com/)

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How to use DTA (Database Tuning Advisor) with Plan Cache option?

SQL Server 2012 comes up with new workload option in DTA (Database Tuning Advisor). In addition, on existing options File or Table, Microsoft gives option to fetch workload from plan cache of SQL Server. In this case, the DTA will select the top 1,000 events from the plan cache based on total elapsed time of the query (that is, based on the total_elapsed_time column of the sys.dm_exec_query_stats DMV). This can be increased using –n option of Database Tuning Advisor command line utility.

dta -E -D DatabaseName -ip –n 2000-s SessionName1

Let’s try it: –

Step 1: Execute query and ensure Cache has plan for required database

–Clear Plan Cache

DBCC FREEPROCCACHE

GO

–Execute fresh statement

SELECT * FROM [HUMANRESOURCES].[EMPLOYEE] WHERE BUSINESSENTITYID > 10

GO

–Check Plan Cache has plan for ADVENTUREWORKS2012 database

SELECT * FROM SYS.DM_EXEC_CACHED_PLANS

CROSS APPLY SYS.DM_EXEC_SQL_TEXT(PLAN_HANDLE)

WHERE DBID=DB_ID(‘ADVENTUREWORKS2012’)

Step 2: Open up DTA and under the “General” tab select

Workload: Plan Cache

Database for work load analysis: AdventureWorks2012

Database and tables to tune: relevant database and table you want to tune. In my case I selected all tables under AdventureWorks2012 database.

Step 3 – Leave other options as default. You can change them as per your requirements. Click on “Start Analysis” and it gives you recommendations as shown below.

Reference : Rohit Garg (http://mssqlfun.com/)

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SQL Server 20082008 R22012 || Remove Node from failover cluster

Steps to remove node from failover cluster for SQL Server 2008 onwards :-

Note :-

a) Same process will be used to remove node from failover cluster

b) Same process will be used when you left with only one node, this will clear cluster group as well

c) Old process of uninstallation from Add and Remove program in Control Panel will not work

1) Open SQL Server installation Center > Go to Maintenance Option from Left > Click on “Remove Node from a SQL Server failover cluster” from right

2) Click on Run to start uninstallation process

3) Click “OK”. In case of any failure, you need to fix that before uninstallation

4) Click Next

5) Select Instance Name & click Next

6) Click Remove to start uninstallation

7) Uninstallation in progress

8) Uninstallation successfully completed.

Reference : Rohit Garg (http://mssqlfun.com/)

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MSDB log file grown large – SLEEP_MSDBSTARTUP waittype

Issue: MSDB database log file is getting full very rapidly and became very huge. Currently, T-Log file is of 5GB whereas Data file is only 1GB for MSDB on server.

Findings: We found system owned open transaction in MSDB which is causing issue.

Transaction information for database ‘msdb’.

Oldest active transaction:

SPID (server process ID): 19s

UID (user ID) : -1

Name : CTraceEvDataQueue

LSN : (12968:15110:1)

Start time : May 7 2016 12:33:14:507PM

SID : 0x0

DBCC execution completed. If DBCC printed error messages, contact your system administrator.

When we try to find SPID 19 details from sys.sysprocesses, we found that session is causing SLEEP_MSDBSTARTUP waittype.

SLEEP_MSDBSTARTUP waittype Occurs when SQL Trace waits for the msdb database to complete startup. This is very rare watitype which we come across in our day to day production support.

Resolution: As we all know, we cannot kill SYSTEM session IDs, We need to restart SQL Services to get rid out of this problematic session.

Reference : Rohit Garg (http://mssqlfun.com/)

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Cumulative Update – 8 for SQL Server 2008 R2 Service Pack 2 Is Now Available !

The 8th cumulative update release for SQL Server 2008 R2 Service Pack 2 is now available for download at the Microsoft Support site. Cumulative Update 8 contains all the hotfixes released since the initial release of SQL Server 2008 R2 SP2.

Those who are facing severe issues with their environment, they can plan to test CU8 in test environment & then move to Production after satisfactory results.

To other, I suggest to wait for SP3 final release to deploy on your production environment, to have consolidate build.

KB Article For CU5 of SQL Server 2008 R2 SP2

· CU#8 KB Article: http://support.microsoft.com/kb/2871401

Previous Cumulative Update KB Articles:

· CU#7 KB Article: http://support.microsoft.com/kb/2844090

· CU#6 KB Article: http://support.microsoft.com/kb/2830140

· CU#5 KB Article: http://support.microsoft.com/kb/2797460

· CU#4 KB Article: http://support.microsoft.com/kb/2777358

· CU#3 KB Article: http://support.microsoft.com/kb/2754552

· CU#2 KB Article: http://support.microsoft.com/kb/2740411

· CU#1 KB Article: http://support.microsoft.com/kb/2720425

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Reference : Rohit Garg (http://mssqlfun.com/)

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